What is the process of ecological succession from a pioneer community to a climax community?

3 weeks ago

Solution 1

Guest Guest #7253174
3 weeks ago

A seral community is a transitional stage of ecological succession moving toward the climax community.

What is Ecological succession ?

  • Ecological succession is the process of change in an ecological community's species composition over time. The time frame can span several decades or fewer (for instance, following a wildfire).
  • The cycling of nutrients like carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur is made possible by bacteria.
  • The community grows through an increase in complexity from a small number of pioneering plants and animals to a stable or self-sustaining climax community. The effects of established organisms on their own settings serve as the "engine" of succession and the reason why ecosystems evolve. Living has the effect of changing one's environment, sometimes subtly and sometimes blatantly.

To learn more about Ecological succession refer to:



📚 Related Questions

what does the combination of the hot, dry summers and abundance of dry vegetation do to the chaparral ecosystems? prone to fires
Solution 1

Dense evergreen bushes, moderate, moist winters, and scorching, dry summers define the chaparral habitat.

Which statement is not true for the climate of the so. cal. chaparral?

  • The chaparral, sometimes referred to as shrubland, is made up of a number of dense thickets of little trees and drought-tolerant, evergreen sclerophyll plants. Chaparral is a type of woodland with dry soil, warm temperatures, and short, resilient bushes.
  • The chaparral biome is dominated by small woody plants as opposed to tall trees or grasses. Chaparral is only found on the Pacific coast of North America. In sections of California and northern Mexico, where the climate is similar to that of the Mediterranean region with hot, dry summers and warm, wet winters, the majority of the chaparral can be found.
  • A geographical feature known as "chaparral" that is mostly found in the U.S. state of California, southern Oregon, and the northern region of Mexico's Baja California Peninsula is a shrubland plant community.
  • Its Mediterranean environment, which features hot, dry summers and warm, wet winters, as well as infrequent, intense crown fires, shape the region. In contrast to the adjacent soft-leaved, drought-deciduous scrub community of coastal sage scrub, which is frequently found on drier, southern-facing slopes within the chaparral biome, summer-drought-tolerant species are present in chaparral.

Learn more about chaparral refer to:



Compare how fast a deep wound would heal compared to a scrape?
Solution 1

A fall, accident, or trauma could result in a significant scrape, abrasion, or cut. A deep wound also includes a surgical cut made by a medical professional while performing a surgery.

What do you mean by Deep wound ?

Wound could be deeper or closer to the skin's surface. Tendons, muscles, ligaments, nerves, blood vessels, and even bone can be harmed by a deep cut. A nail, knife, or pointy tooth are examples of pointed objects that can cause punctures. Puncture wounds frequently look superficial but may penetrate deeper tissue layers.

Clean wounds are those classified as

  • class 1. They are primarily closed, uninfected, and devoid of irritation.
  • Class 2 injuries are regarded as clean-contaminated.
  • Class 3 injuries are regarded as polluted.
  • Class 4 wounds are regarded as having a filthy infection.

Your body has a sophisticated system for treating skin injuries. Every stage is necessary for effective wound healing. Body repair occurs as a result of a number of components and steps involved in wound healing.

To know more about deep wound please click here :



Do you think that Earth is overpopulated by humans?
Solution 1


no there is land water also

Solution 2

Yes, I believe that Earth is currently overpopulated by humans.

According to the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, the world’s population is estimated to reach 8.5 billion people by 2030 and 9.7 billion by 2050. This is a significant increase from the current population of 7.8 billion people.

The problem of overpopulation is compounded by the fact that the global population is expected to continue to grow at a rapid rate in the coming decades. This is because the fertility rate in many countries remains high, while the mortality rate continues to decline due to advances in healthcare and nutrition.

In addition, the number of people living in cities is also increasing, which is putting strain on urban infrastructure and resources. This is leading to several problems such as air pollution, traffic congestion, water shortages, and overcrowding.

Finally, the large number of people on the planet has also had a significant environmental impact. The increasing demand for resources such as food, water, and energy is resulting in deforestation, habitat destruction, and climate change.

Overall, it is clear that the Earth is overpopulated by humans, and this is hurting the environment and the quality of life of many people. Governments and other stakeholders must take action to address the issue of overpopulation and its associated problems.

Learn more about overpopulation:


In the process of photosynthesis, Green plants use light energy to convert?
Solution 1


a sugar called glucose


Solution 2




_________, which is an autoimmune disorder caused by hyperthyroidism, is characterized by goiter and exophthalmos.
Solution 1


graves disease


_______ also known as thyromegaly, is an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland that produces a swelling in the front of the neck.
Solution 1

Thyromegaly is a disorder in which the thyroid gland — the butterfly-shaped gland in the neck — becomes abnormally enlarged.

What causes the thyroid gland to enlarge?

  • Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of goiter. The body needs iodine to produce thyroid hormone. If you do not have enough iodine in your diet, the thyroid gets larger to try and capture all the iodine it can, so it can make the right amount of thyroid hormone.
  • The neck is examined for scars, masses, glandular or nodal enlargement, and so on. Examine the trachea for any deviations. Next, as the patient swallows, examine the thyroid gland for any enlargement.
  • The trachea should be midline, and there should be no visible swelling of the lymph nodes or thyroid gland. Take note of the patient's speech. They should be able to speak clearly and without slurring or garbling.
  • Examine the skull and face. Examine the skin and scalp. Skull palpate (especially if patient complains of tenderness or recent trauma). Examine your facial sensation and motor function.
  • Neck abnormalities can have a local etiology (e.g., infection, neoplasm, trauma) or be a symptom of a more general disorder (eg, curvature, spondylosis, leukemia, systemic).

The correct order is:

  1. Inspect the front of the neck for masses, enlarged nodes, or deviation.
  2. Inspect the position of the trachea.
  3. Inspect the thyroid gland.
  4. Test the head and neck for range of motion.
  5. Palpate the head, neck, and sub-clavicular lymph nodes.
  6. Palpate the thyroid.

To learn more about thyromegaly refer to:



Place the following steps of phagocytosis in the order that they occur:
1) Endosome fuses with lysozome
2) Dendritic cell engulfs Rhinovirus
3) Epitopes are attached to MHC-II
4) Digestion of the Rhinovirus
5) MHC-II plus the attached epitope move to the outside of the dendritic cell
Solution 1

cd4+ t cells are activated by interaction between CD4+ and MHC II.

What is MHC molecule?

  • Antigens are foreign proteins that enter the host body through an infection. Antigens are generally high molecular weight proteins or polysaccharides. Viruses and bacteria contain antigen on their surface or inside the body.
  • Epitope is the molecular region on the surface of the antigen which interacts with the antibody binding site on the antigen. Epitopes are capable of stimulating an immune response so, these are also known as antigenic determinants. Binding between the receptor and epitopes occurs when they both fit together like a puzzle, that event is necessary to activate B-cell production of antibodies.
  • A sizable region of vertebrate DNA called the major histocompatibility complex houses a group of closely related polymorphic genes that code for the cell surface proteins needed by the adaptive immune system. These MHC molecules are cell surface proteins.
  • A controlled, efficient immune response to pathogens depends on CD4+T cells. After interacting with the antigen-MHC complex, naive CD4+T cells become activated and undergo specialized subtype differentiation that is largely influenced by the cytokine milieu of the microenvironment.
  • Hence the correct answer is interaction between CD4+ and MHC II.

To learn more about MHC molecule from the given link:



Biodiesel can be used as a pure fuel, or blended with petroleum-derived diesel (petrodiesel) in any percentage. Such blends are referred to as BXX wherein XX stands for the percentage by volume of biodiesel in the blend.
B20—a blend of 20% by volume ____________: 80% by volume ________________— has demonstrated significant environmental benefits (fewer harmful emissions) with a minimum increase in cost.
Solution 1

A renewable substitute for diesel fuel made from petroleum is biodiesel.

Describe biodiesel ?

  • A renewable substitute for diesel fuel made from petroleum is biodiesel (hereafter referred to as "petrodiesel").
  • A lye catalyst, methyl or ethyl alcohol, and the feedstock oil (often soybean oil in the United States) are combined to create biodiesel (sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide).
  • The glycerin is separated from the fatty acid molecules of the feedstock oil during the transesterification process, and each fatty acid molecule then joins an alcohol molecule.
  • Biodiesel is a domestic, renewable fuel for diesel engines that complies with ASTM D 6751 specifications and is made from natural oils like soybean oil.
  • To ensure proper performance, fuel-grade biodiesel must be produced in accordance with ASTM D6751, which is a strict industry standard.

To learn more about biodiesel refer to:



please help me with this
Solution 1


carrot, tree, grass


5. A tissue is composed of a group of
a. Similar cells
b. Related organelles
c. Organ systems
d. Related organs
Solution 1


a.similar cells.


hope it is correct.